Code: Existing building - If you open a wall by removing a window you only have to pack the wall full of insulation. But if you uncover a wall by removing the whole drywall/cover you are required to bring the wall up to current code. Same with ceilings. Your local AHJ may be more accommodating.
Local codes and the International Codes also state what the minimum width of the tread has to be AT Point E. Typically 6". And don't put the handrail on Point E's side of the stairs. Build safe.
1/4" diameter drill hole in the corner is good enough, or layout the finished template below a rough, approx. 1/4" undercut, second stringer. Then route out the rough cut stringer with a 1/2" diameter straight bit w/ a flush guide bearing. Thanks goes to Tom Silva of This Old House for showing this one. I scored a new 1/2" chuck router in the process.
Since this was written testing in Oregon has shown that 1/2" ply on the outside of the foam, attached at 4" edge nailing with 16d nails outperforms standard shear sheathing. In this case, you get full foam, full sheathing and a great surface for attaching house wrap & siding.
Karnerjon, Splash and batt method places foam in the cavity between studs. It does not stop the thermal transfer through the studs. It is effective at keeping the sheathing colder than the dew point so moisture does not condense in the sheathing. But this means the sheathing must then dry to the exterior. This effectively moves the vapor retarder to the 'splashed' foam so the batt insulation must dry to the inside. The studs and plates are still penetrating the vapor retarder so they may have problems if there is a lot of moisture to leak through the cavity. Use of Mike Holmes' favorite blue anti-mold treated wood is a good idea in this case.
Chris1271: Its 13.333 because of what is called the 'Law of Diminishing Returns'. The whole wall works to reduce loss to R10. Yet, there is some loss and now only the remaining heat is left. The remaining walls either don't stop any loss R0 or stop R10 of this lesser remaining heat. So the second R10 does not have as much heat to hold back as the original R10 does. Its better understood when using the U-factors because that is a measure of heat's pressure through the wall. To top it all off, the other law of thermal dynamics is that heat tends toward 'cold' e.g. the lack of heat, so the second R10 serves a dam that redirects the heat flow toward the colder R0.
A corollary of this is found in statistics as seen in Let's Make A Deal. Choose a door. They reveal another door isn't the good prize. Your chances of having the winning door if you keep your first choice may seem like 50% but statistics show that it is only 33%. I bet you can google this as it is a basic example in most business statistic courses.
If the second floor joists are ledgered to the inner wall and only gussets connect this wall to the exterior wall then both walls are load bearing as the inner wall carries the floor joist load and any interior roof loads they pick up down to the slab edge. Not a system to be used in any significant earthquake zone.
A concrete column footing looks 'widened' at the base because that is it's calculated bearing surface. The smaller column above is only smaller because it can be to save on concrete and soil disposal.
A 12 inch diameter footing is allowed to carry up to 29 sf of non-cantilevered deck by code: 2012+. (12" dia circle is 78% OF 1 SF, .78 * 1500 /40 = 29.48 sf. 200 sf of post supported deck would require 7 of these). Use a bigger diameter of prove the soil supports more than 1500 psf and you fair better.
The shape of the base is insignificant if it sits above the frost line, as all the soil above and around it is lifted by the heaving. In fact, a wider base above the frost line provides more surface area for the frost to heave against and lift the footing, e.g. hydraulics. And that is why caissons have pointed bases not flat ones.
Side shear is insignificant as this is a base bearing footing and not a caisson. So, leave the tube in place and tamp the backfill to 95% compaction (code). Just don't flatten the base by tamping fill. All base bearing footings should sit on undisturbed ground (code). New codes consider existing backfilled foundations as disturbed up to 5 feet from them, so expect to dig those footings at least to the depth of the nearby existing footing no matter where the frost line is.
Vertical steel is only necessary if there is significant concrete column above the surface (susceptible to lateral forces or impact), or a significant difference in diameter of the column and the base footing (key, balancing the spread of the load and reduction of uplift of extended footing). In ground concrete has little tension and steel is always designed/used to withstand tension forces.
A 12 inch dia footing is allowed to carry no more than 29 sf of non-cantilevered deck by code 2012+. 12" dia circle is 78% OF 1 SF, .78 * 1500 /40 = 29.48 sf. Prove the soil is better than 1500 psf and you fair better.
The shape of the base is insignificant if it sits above the frost line, as all the soil is lifted .
Side shear is insignificant as this is a base bearing footing and not a caisson. So leave the tube in place.
"Inside the exterior wall line" is not measured from the inside face of framing, rather from the exterior face of framing. The appropriate understanding would be 'toward the inside of the exterior wall line' with 'line' being at the edge from which setbacks and shearwalls are typically measured from or located.
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