Back in (we think) 1906, they simply dug a hole, formed 6 inch walls, and poured concrete over the dirt for basement walls in Maryland. Lousy concrete, with an occasional stick and large cold joints. In specific areas with really bad mixes, as moisture gets into the concrete, it flakes of in powdery chunks. I scraped and cleaned several areas back to solid material, then completely sealed thjose areas inside with concrete sealing paint, and 10 years later the paint is all that’s holding many of those now powdery flakes of concrete in place.
I doubt the foundation is going to fall apart in my lifetime, but I’d still like to figure out if I can remedy the problem.
Some external, above grade areas of the foundation have been porriged years ago, but that’s not sticking to some areas either.
The only real solution I can think of is to excavate outside, clean everything, and spray shotcrete, then waterproof the heck out of it. Very expensive.
Any other ideas?